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Bilad al-Sham
Bilād ash-Shām (Arabic: بِـلَاد الـشَّـام‎) was a Rashidun, Umayyad and later Abbasid Caliphate province in what is now the region of Syria. It incorporated former Byzantine territories of the Diocese of the East, organized soon after the Muslim conquest of Syria in the mid-7th century, which was completed at the decisive Battle of Yarmouk. The name Bilād aš-Šām means “land to the north”; or literally “land on the left-hand”, relative to someone in the Hejaz facing east (Yaman (Arabic: يَـمَـن‎) correspondingly means “land of the right hand”).[1]

The Levant (/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the eastern Mediterranean with its islands, that is, it included all of the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean shores, extending from Greece to Cyrenaica.[2]


  1. Bilad al-Sham – Wikipedia
  2. Levant – Wikipedia